英語入籍考試

入籍考試必讀:莎士比亞作品–詩歌

uk772_C11_final_v2-001-12015年,習近平訪問英國期間,他在演講中,引用了一句莎士比亞的名言,「凡是過去,皆為序章。(What’s past is prologue)」。此外,在互贈禮物時,伊麗莎白二世女王選擇了一套莎士比亞的《十四行詩》,作為饋贈,送給了他。這一來一往,既顯示出了莎士比亞的重要性,也顯示了莎翁詩歌的地位。

莎士比亞一生創作了六部詩集,分別是《十四行詩》、《維納斯和阿多尼斯》、《魯克麗絲失貞記》、《熱情的朝聖者》、《鳳凰和斑鳩》、《愛人的怨訴》,其中,《十四行詩》最為著名。

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《十四行詩》簡介

莎士比亞《十四行詩》(Shakespeare’s Sonnets),共收錄了154首詩歌,第一部份共有126首,主要是獻給一位英俊青年;第二部份有28首,主要是獻給一位黑色女士。所有的詩歌,至今不確定到底是為誰創作,沒有具體的創作時間,首次發表是在1609年。

十四行詩是源於意大利民間的一種抒情短詩,文藝復興時,盛行於整個歐洲。這種詩體,結構嚴謹,音節韻腳嚴格,往往會限制詩人的抒情。然而,莎士比亞的《十四行詩》卻毫不拘謹,這些詩歌,自由奔放、賦予想像、感情充沛、延續了他作品一貫的天馬行空。

莎士比亞的《十四行詩》贊揚了愛情、友情、真、善、美。在詩歌中,莎士比亞對愛、社會、人生、死亡、時間等,做了深刻的探索和思考。

《十四行詩》選摘

第15首

When I consider every thing that grows

Holds in perfection but a little moment,

That this huge stage presenteth naught but shows

Whereon the stars in secret influence comment;

 

When I perceive that men as plants increase,

Cheered and checked even by the selfsame sky;

Vaunt in their youthful sap, at height decrease,

And wear their brave state out of memory:

 

Then the conceit of this inconstant stay

Sets you most rich in youth before my sight,

Where wasteful time debateth with decay

To change your day of youth to sullied night;

 

And all in war with time for love for you,

As he takes from you, I engraft you new.

 

 

第15首(辜正坤譯)

當我忖思,一切充滿生機的事物

都只能興旺短暫的時光,

在世界這大舞臺上呈現的一切

都暗中受制於天上的星象;

 

當我看到人類像草木一樣滋長,

任同一個蒼天隨意褒貶抑揚,

少壯時神采飛動,盛極而漸衰,

往日的鼎盛貌逐步被人遺忘。

 

正是這種對無常世界的憂思,

使我想到妳充滿青春朝氣的形象,

而今肆虐的時間和朽腐為伍,

要化妳青春的潔白為黑夜的骯臟。

 

為了與妳相愛,我將向時間提出宣戰,

它使妳枯萎,我令妳移花接木換新裝。

第18首

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer’s lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimm’d;

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimm’d;

But thy eternal summer shall not fade

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;

Nor shall Death brag thou wander’st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st;

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

辜正坤譯文:

或許我可用夏日將你作比方,

但你比夏日更可愛也更溫良。

夏風狂作常會摧落五月的嬌蕊,

夏季的期限也未免還不太長。

有時候天眼如炬人間酷熱難當,

但轉瞬又金面如晦常惹雲遮霧障。

每一種美都終究會凋殘零落,

或見棄於機緣,或受挫於天道無常。

然而你永恆的夏季卻不會終止,

你優美的形象也永遠不會消亡,

死神難誇口說你在它羅網中遊蕩,

只因你借我的詩行便可長壽無疆。

只要人口能呼吸,人眼看得清,

我這詩就長存,使你萬世流芳。

 

第66首

Tir’d with all these, for restful death I cry

As to behold desert a beggar born,

And needy nothing trimm’d in jollity,

And purest faith unhappily forsworn,

 

And gilded honour shamefully misplac’d,

And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted,

And right perfection wrongfully disgrac’d,

And strength by limping sway disabled,

 

And art made tongue-tied by authority,

And folly-doctor-like-controlling skill,

And simple truth miscall’d simplicity,

And captive good attending captain ill:

 

Tir’d with all these, from these would I be gone,

Save that, to die, I leave my love alone.

 

第66首(梁實秋譯)

這些我厭倦了,我要在死中安息,

例如看著天才生而為乞丐,

蠢貨反倒穿戴得堂皇富麗,

最純潔的誓約慘遭破壞,

 

金亮的榮譽被放錯了地方,

處女的貞操被人橫加污辱,

一代完人的名譽被人中傷,

懦者當權,強者徒呼負負,

 

學術攝於權勢不敢發言,

愚昧假充內行對專家發號施令,

真誠被目為頭腦簡單,

良善服從邪惡的亂命;

 

這些我看厭了,我要離開這人世,

只是我若一死我的愛人形單影隻。

文|流箏

入籍考試必看:

樣題:

William Shakespeare wrote a number of sonnets. What are sonnets?

  1. Poems of 14 lines
  2. Mystery plays
  3. Stories for Children
  4. Rhyming poems

複習:

Which play was written by Shakespeare?

  1. Before the Dawn
  2. Hamlet
  3. Freedom of Love
  4. Come, Walk with me

 

答案:

a,b

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